“Merely introducing technology to the educational process is not enough” because successful integration does not stop with introducing or using the tools in the classroom. Teachers who do not know the full potential and capabilities of using technology in the classroom will be unable to put it to good use and will not utilize it fully to bring about the desired positive results.
Teachers should learn how to effectively use technology in the classroom to be able to present content in an interesting, engaging manner and help realize curriculum goals or the learning goals. The key is in using technology to promote learning, enhance the learning process and bringing into fruition Cone’s representation of direct purposeful experience for effective communication and learning. Teachers should be able to use technology to help build the framework of permanent and meaningful learning (Dale, 1969).
Apart from being subject-matter experts (content knowledge), knowing teaching-learning principles (pedagogical knowledge), teachers must also have technical knowledge, or at least basic technical knowledge(know-how on the use of Word, Excel, Powerpoint, email, internet, adding and removing software. Teachers must also keep themselves in the loop with regard to the latest in technology. This is so because technology evolves so quickly nowadays.
Just as pedagogical knowledge brings an awareness of one’s teaching philosophies and introduces him/her to different teaching approaches, the teacher must be able to transcend traditional or behavioral approaches in using technology, and instead match his/her use of technology with his/her teaching approach. Teachers must realize that computers are not just used for encoding or presentation purposes but can also be used to teach problem-solving, promote critical thinking, encourage creativity and teach decision-making. In doing so, the use of technology helps enhance the learning process because it supports the different components of learning.
Partnerships with fellow educators, other faculty members across schools, collaborations and establishing a community of practice will help allow teachers to share knowledge and promote learning. This would be beneficial in promoting pedagogical knowledge. The diversity in members of community of practice would also promote content knowledge if people from different fields get to learn from and share ideas with one another. As a community, they may organize activities and invite qualified individuals to give lectures and/or seminars to raise content, technological and/or pedagogical knowledge.
If I were a music teacher and I played a CD or used mp3 to have my students listen to a certain song or music, that would classify as introducing technology to the classroom. I have plenty of methods and tools at my disposal to teach the elements of music—the most tried and tested and the most overused of which would be to do a lecture. But if I used a software such as Audacity or Adobe Audition (and the class had access to it as well), the students would be able to “experience” the various elements of music and be able to differentiate one from the other. We could all use the song/music I played earlier and play with it, and students might be able to even create another version of the song, thereby allowing him to make/create music.
Given the example presented above, it shows that the mere introduction of technology does not automatically enliven the lesson or engage the students. It’s no different from playing a movie in class without first introducing context. The students will just have walked out of the classroom as dazed as ever and will not have gotten anything from watching the movie other than the experience.
The effective use of TPC knowledge would be illustrated as follows:
In a reading/literacy class, a teacher may start with a pre-reading activity to build interest thru an audio recording or have the students do a quick research on the web and do a quick show and tell about the topic of the reading material. This may also activate prior knowledge about related stories or the topic of the story. During reading would include activities such as reading aloud, paired reading, group reading and individual reading. Post reading activities might include creating projects such as creating illustrations for a given story and/or creating a story given a set of illustrated drawings. For this final collaborative project, students will be utilizing tablets/iPads with drawing/imaging, presentation, video, audio software. Students may also create a Soundcloud or Youtube account and upload their final projects there.
I think this is a good example of using TPACK because the teacher used different learning theories—behavioral and cognitive to teach reading in a fun and interactive way. This highlights the teacher’s pedagogical knowledge. Thru modeling or when the teacher reads aloud, this exhibits content knowledge (teacher literacy). The use of technology and software for collaborative learning and as a tool for creation illustrates technological knowledge. It shows that the teacher not only knows which technology are available for the class to utilize, and it also shows her knowledge on how to use that technology to direct learning and promote the learning theory.
ASSURE MODEL LESSON PLAN
The class consists of 10 low-intermediate ESL learners. There are three females and seven males in this class. All of them are Koreans. The boys are about 12-13 years of age. Of the three females, one is an adult about 45 years of age and the rest are both 10 years old. The students have all attended hagwon (after school classes) in Korea. Their primary purpose for visiting the Philippines is to learn and improve their English communication skills. The students generally enjoy learning English. The younger students have difficulty maintaining focus during class. The adult student is rather timid and reserved but has no difficulty keeping her focus. The adult student has already expressed interest in having more drills and more opportunities for conversation. Learning styles vary from auditory, visual and kinesthetic. The boys enjoy using the computer and enjoy showing off the results to their teacher and their classmates. Four of the boys are quite fond of drawing. The younger students love to get up and move around. The younger students show more interest in game-based activities than paper-and-pen drills. The more mature student doesn’t mind paper-and-pen drills but also likes to be given opportunities to showcase what she learned in free-form conversation. Adjustments have to be made by the teacher to accommodate the learning preferences of everyone in the group.
STATE THE OBJECTIVES
At the end of the lesson, the learner will be able to:
- Determine the correct and incorrect usage of in, on and at as prepositions of place.
- Demonstrate cooperation with others in a classroom setting.
- Construct simple sentences using prepositional phrase on, in, at correctly.
SELECT METHODS, MEDIA AND MATERIAL
- Blue, Black and Red Markers
- Preposition cut-outs
- Logo of McDonalds
UTILIZE MEDIA AND MATERIAL
Preview the Material
The teacher will make sure that she has all the materials ready and available and that the projector, speakers and the computer are all in working order. The teacher will check if the audio clip is playing properly and that the sound is clear and audible. The teacher will likewise make sure that she has printed a copy of the handout.
The teacher will turn on, test and set up the computer, projector, and speaker before the start of class. The teacher will also make sure that all the cut outs are ready for use before the class. The teacher shall make sure that the ink of the markers are not running dry, and shall have a spare set of markers in case the ink dries out. Before class, the teacher will write down the outline of activities on the upper left hand corner of the whiteboard to guide the students accordingly.
The classroom shall be set-up in a horseshoe-shaped seating arrangement to ensure everyone has a clear view of the projector and also to give them space for the games and activities. The speakers will be placed in an area within the hearing range of all the students. The cut-outs should be within reach of the students.
Prepare the Students
The teacher shall brief the students on the activities planned before the class and bring the students’ attention to the outline of activities written on the whiteboard. The teacher shall also inform the students of the evaluation exercises that will be given through the duration of the class.
Provide the Learning Experience
Show the students the logo of McDonalds. Ask them to tell you what that logo symbolizes. Tell the students that you are going to play an audio clip about how McDonalds first started. Teacher plays the clip. Afterwards, tell the students that you have provided all of them with a soft copy of the story and it should be available in their devices/machines. Tell them that the copy you have provided them contains missing words and that they should help supply you with the missing words. Divide the class into 2 groups and give each group an envelope containing preposition cut-outs. Play the audio again while the students are reading the material. The teacher should pause after each message unit and raise her hand. Once the teacher has raised her hand, that’s the students’ cue to bring you the missing word.
Process the activity for the class:
- What do you call the missing words in the sentence? What part of speech are they? Prepositions
- How do they function in the sentence?
They are words that precede a noun or pronoun and show the relationship between that noun or pronoun and another word in the sentence.
The facilitator briefly presents the most common prepositions.
- Prepositions of Place (at, in, on, out, above, below, next to, in front of, behind, between, beneath)
- Prepositions of Time (at, on, in, by, for, since)
- Prepositions of Movement (from…to, into/out of, toward, away from, to)
The facilitator then tells the class that this lesson will focus on the most commonly confused Prepositions of Place: IN, ON, AT
REQUIRE LEARNER PARTICIPATION
A sentence with a missing preposition will be flashed on the screen. Students will be divided into 2 groups. The team or representative will choose the correct preposition from the cards. The representative will be blindfolded and the other team members will give him directions to the board so that he or she can stick the preposition on the donkey. The other team can distract the representative. The winning team gets a prize.
EVALUATE AND REVISE
After the game, each group will create an illustrated storybook using animation software or drawing software/app or Paint. They will illustrate and create their own stories. They must be able to correctly use the prepositions IN, ON and AT in their stories. Students may use whichever software tool they are comfortable with. Students may either use the computer or their smartphones/tablets for this activity.
Each group will come to the front and present their story to the class. Students will be asked if the presenting group was able to use the prepositions IN, ON, AT correctly.
ANALYSIS OF INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN
Content knowledge is demonstrated here during the short lecture about prepositions. The teacher understood the student level and only presented the most confused and most commonly used prepositions in the English language. Since the student are low intermediate, accuracy and fluency are still developing so it’s best to contextualize the prepositions to avoid confusion. There are thousands of prepositions and presenting all of them in one go would be overwhelming especially for low intermediate EFL students. The prepositions IN, ON, AT can be used in different ways, so putting them in a classification –prepositions of place—makes it easier for the students to absorb since they are presented in bite-sized chunks. The prepositions presented to the class are some of the most commonly used and most confused prepositions as well.
Pedagogical knowledge was also apparent because the teacher engaged the students first before starting the lesson. Motivation is seen as a key component in learning among the constructivists. The teacher used both the PPP (Present, Practice, Produce) and ESA (Engage, Study, Activate) models which are popular ESL teaching methodologies and which are highly recommended in the TESOL community. The use of rewards exemplified the behaviorist learning theory. Scaffolding and collaboration were also very much apparent throughout the class.
Technological knowledge was shown in the use of technology tools such as computer, projector and software in class. The final activity is quite challenging, but by integrating drawing app, drawing software and document app/software, the students are given the freedom to explore, learn and challenge themselves by using higher order thinking/learning. They are able to go beyond just understanding and applying what they learned through assessment OF learning. They are given the opportunity to create something for their learning portfolio, analyze and evaluate each other’s work. They also learn something other than what is being taught in class because they get the chance to explore technology and use technology for learning. It also gives a chance for the students who are fond of drawing to showcase their talents, and perhaps other students can also learn from them and pick up a new skill.
The technology integration level would reach the Infusion stage because the students were given the freedom to choose technology tools, and did their activities in a collaborative fashion. There is also flexible and seamless use of technology into the lesson.
Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054. Retrieved from http://onlinelearningcurriculumcommittee.pbworks.com/f/mishra.pdf
Dale. (n.d.). The “Cone of experience”. In Audio-visual methods in teaching (pp. 37-52). New York: Dryden Press. Retrieved from http://ocw.metu.edu.tr/file.php/118/dale_audio-visual_20methods_20in_20teaching_1_.pdf